2012). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb00117.x, Klingenberg CP (2011) MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Additionally, this species also played a significant role in bacterial and parasitic transmissions in humans (Sulaiman et al. Therefore, its growth and development patterns have great implications in the estimation of the minimum postmortem The result showed similar classifications as in Table 4. They were reared at 27.8 ± 2.7 °C and 76.2 ± 7.7% RH (first replicate) and 26.1 ± 1.7 °C and 81.8 ± 8.9% RH (second replicate). Based on the results, the centroid size of C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeleton was positively correlated with developmental time, indicating the shape transformation occurred along larval progression from the first to the third instar. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.1997.tb00026.x, Klingenberg CP (2002) Shape analysis of symmetric structures: quantifying variation among individuals and asymmetry. - 103.129.223.144. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-011-0675-7, Santillán-Guayasamín S, Villacís AG, Grijalva MJ, Dujardin JP (2017) The modern morphometric approach to identify eggs of Triatominae. Eggs were reared overnight at outdoor ambient temperature (23.5–34.0 °C) and relative humidity (RH) (44.0–96.0%). 2006; Gunz and Mitteroecker 2013; Changbunjong et al. latifrons). Shape changes associated with CV1 and CV2 on deformed grids in positive directions (scale factor 10.0). … Cross-validation test in DFA revealed high percentages of correctly classified specimens in all sampling intervals (86.7–100.0%; p < 0.0001) except for pairs of 20–26, 44–50, and 68–92 age groups, which corresponded to non-significant results in Mahalanobis and Procrustes distances output (Table 4). (2008). Geometrical landmarks of C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeleton in three different instars. 2013) whereby the deformation of cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape shifted inward based on the selected landmarks. PubMed  Article  2005; Scalici et al. Generally found on meat, rotten logs, carrion, human feces, fish , garbage dumps etc. Images of cephalopharyngeal skeleton were obtained directly after specimen mounting by using a stereomicroscope (Nikon, Japan) fitted with a 12-megapixel USB3.0 CMOS microscope camera (Toupcam, China). Does not include altitudinal distribution, which is covered under Habitat. Trop Biomed 21(2):69–75, CAS  Chrysomya megacephala larvae were used as sample, as this species was one of the most prevalent sarcosaprophagous species found at death scenes in Malaysia, Thailand, and the rest of the world (Lee et al. b Second instar. The developmental period of C. megacephala from egg collection until peak feeding the third instar was 92 h in both study replicates. The cephalopharyngeal skeleton was subsequently immersed in 10% acetic acid and 70% ethanol for 5 min each. C. megacephala's eggs are "oval with one flat face and another convex". LEB 4(4):272–284, Rabbani A, Zuha RM (2017) Cephalopharyngeal skeleton morphometry of Hypopygiopsis violacea (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) - a preliminary assessment for its application in forensic entomology. J Med Assoc Thai 88(10):1458–1460, Sulaiman S, Sohadi AR, Jeffery J (1989) Human helminth parasite burdens on cyclorrhaphan flies (Diptera) trapped at aboriginal settlement in Malaysia. The species of this family are generally known as blue bottles or green bottles. Forensic Science Programme, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Basement One, Tun Seri Lanang Library, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Centre for Insect Systematics, Faculty of Science & Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, You can also search for this author in Landmarks were selected based on geometrical shape of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, i.e., (1) clipeal arc (anterodorsal process/dorsal bridge), (2) dorsal cornu, (3) concavity of pharyngeal sclerite (tentorial phragma/medial incision), (4) lower ventral cornu, and (5) base of parastomal bar (Nuñez and Liria 2016) (Fig. In addition, these changes explained by the ontogenetic allometry in C. megacephala larva were represented by the cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Mol Ecol Resour 11(2):353–357. 2012; Nuñez-Rodriguez and Liria 2017b). Decay is caused by bacteria. This effect accounted for 60.3% of the total shape variation. They were left exposed and checked hourly for ovipositon activity by a single female C. megacephala. Considering the practicality of geometric morphometrics which could discriminate insect species, this application was extended to the analysis of blow fly larval growth based on cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Forensic Sci Int 138:50–61. The two-dimensional images were then converted to a readable format using tpsUtil (version 1.74) and landmarks were plotted by using tpsDig2 (version 2.31) (download link: http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/morph/). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-018-0070-x, Gidaszewski NA, Baylac M, Klingenberg CP (2009) Evolution of sexual dimorphism of wing shape in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. Academic Press, London. 5:1–88, Lee HL, Krishnasamy M, Abdullah AG, Jeffery J (2004) Review of forensically important entomological specimens in the period of 1972-2002. In replicate 1, differences were detected between the 44- and 50-h group, 68- and 74-h group, 68- and 92-h group, and 74 and 92-h group. This research was funded by UKM Research Incentive Grant: GGP-2017-036. 2015; Nuñez and Liria 2016; Nuñez-Rodriguez and Liria 2017a; Tatsuta et al. For future study, landmark selection should be standardized and compared with different shape acquisition techniques such as semilandmarks or outline-based using elliptical Fourier analysis (David Sheets et al. The larval age is estimated based on their growth parameter such as larval body length, which can be inferred from the species-specific developmental model (Sharma et al. Biol Rev 73:79–123. The remains of a 53-yr-old-male were concurrently infested with third instars of the two blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), near a severe tumor lesion presented on the lower right leg. By using regression analysis of the Procrustes coordinates and centroid size/log-transformed centroid size, the association between shape and size across different age groups was significant with moderate to high effect. This fly can be a nuisance to humans and even cause accidental myiasis. Results indicate a strong significant and positive correlation between centroid size and developmental time with the correlation coefficient, r, ranged from 0.964 (study replicate 1) to 0.973 (study replicate 2) (p < 0.05). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2163-z, Strelin MM, Benitez-Vieyra S, Fornoni J, Klingenberg CP, Cocucci A (2018) The evolution of floral ontogenetic allometry in the Andean genus Caiophora (Loasaceae, subfam. 2017) or 3D morphometrics (Bai and Yang 2014). General description of the sites where the species is found (ecosystem, forest, environment or microhabitat). The scatter plot from CV1 and CV2 shows that the cephalopharyngeal skeletons of C. megacephala at 20- and 26-h age group was clearly isolated from those at 44- to 92-h group. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. nov. is described from Western Samoa. Chrysomya megacephala (F.) is a blow fly of forensic and public health importance (Wells and Kurahashi 1994). Networks. https://doi.org/10.5958/0973-9130.2017.00100.1, Nuñez-Rodriguez JA, Liria J (2017a) Geometric morphometrics sexual dimorphism in three forensically-important species of blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Am J Phys Anthropol 131:432–443. Larvae vary in size according to instar and are shaped more thickly towards the rear. Google Scholar, Canal NA, Hernández-Ortiz V, Tigrero Salas JO, Selivon D (2015) Morphometric study of third-instar larvae from five morphotypes of the Anastepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae). Centroid size was strongly correlated with developmental time (p < 0.05) and significantly different between daily intervals (p < 0.05). In SPSS™ Version 21 software, centroid sizes were classified based on the larval sampling intervals (age group) as independent groups and they were also checked for normality. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Bulygina E, Mitteroecker P, Aiello L (2006) Ontogeny of facial dimorphism and patterns of individual development within one human population. Correspondence to J Entomol and Zool Stud 4(1):338–341, Nuñez-Rodriguez J, Liria J (2017b) Sexual wing shape dimorphism in Piophila casei (Linneaus, 1758 Diptera: Piophilidae). In Calliphoridae larvae, cephalopharyngeal skeleton is the invaginating mouthparts in the cephalic region of the larva, consisting of pharyngeal sclerites and mandibles which are used to facilitate food intake (Teskey 1981). Hystrix It J Mamm 24(1):15–24. Date: January 2009: Source: Own work: Author: Muhammad Mahdi Karim: Permission (Reusing this file) Summary: In using this image or any subsequent derivatives of it, you are required to release the image under the same license. In the present study, the geometric morphometric analysis produced a visual classification of C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeletons based on their age groups. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2012.01030.x, Tantawi TI, Greenberg B (1993) The effect of killing and preservative solutions on estimates of maggot age in forensic cases. rufifacies, Ch. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) is the most abundant and predominant species which arrives and colonizes a cadaver first in most parts of China. To minimize this effect, we removed any obscure landmarks when using a two-dimensional image of cephalopharyngeal skeleton as a sample. Blood, body fluids etc. Given the results from the present study, GM analysis on cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape variation merit further exploratory investigations, especially in comparing different forensically important fly species and by using different environmental settings such as rearing temperatures and food sources as these could also influence the biological shape (Dujardin 2008; Gobbi et al. Green flies (Chrysomya megacephala) perch on rotten food, fish that begin to rot and rubbish and rotten carcasses. Article  The adult flies (females) prefer protein diet eg. 2018). ), associated mostly to vertebrates. Shape conformation for cephalopharyngeal skeletons in study replicates 1 and 2 scattered along the first two canonical variate axes (CV1 and CV2) (Fig. The area including the remainder of the species of medical importance worldwide description megacephala... Third instar was 92 h in both study replicates are summarized in Table.. 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