2012). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb00117.x, Klingenberg CP (2011) MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Additionally, this species also played a significant role in bacterial and parasitic transmissions in humans (Sulaiman et al. Therefore, its growth and development patterns have great implications in the estimation of the minimum postmortem The result showed similar classifications as in Table 4. They were reared at 27.8 ± 2.7 °C and 76.2 ± 7.7% RH (first replicate) and 26.1 ± 1.7 °C and 81.8 ± 8.9% RH (second replicate). Based on the results, the centroid size of C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeleton was positively correlated with developmental time, indicating the shape transformation occurred along larval progression from the first to the third instar. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.1997.tb00026.x, Klingenberg CP (2002) Shape analysis of symmetric structures: quantifying variation among individuals and asymmetry. - 184.108.40.206. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-011-0675-7, Santillán-Guayasamín S, Villacís AG, Grijalva MJ, Dujardin JP (2017) The modern morphometric approach to identify eggs of Triatominae. Eggs were reared overnight at outdoor ambient temperature (23.5–34.0 °C) and relative humidity (RH) (44.0–96.0%). 2006; Gunz and Mitteroecker 2013; Changbunjong et al. latifrons). Shape changes associated with CV1 and CV2 on deformed grids in positive directions (scale factor 10.0). … Cross-validation test in DFA revealed high percentages of correctly classified specimens in all sampling intervals (86.7–100.0%; p < 0.0001) except for pairs of 20–26, 44–50, and 68–92 age groups, which corresponded to non-significant results in Mahalanobis and Procrustes distances output (Table 4). (2008). Geometrical landmarks of C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeleton in three different instars. 2013) whereby the deformation of cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape shifted inward based on the selected landmarks. PubMed Article 2005; Scalici et al. Generally found on meat, rotten logs, carrion, human feces, fish , garbage dumps etc. Images of cephalopharyngeal skeleton were obtained directly after specimen mounting by using a stereomicroscope (Nikon, Japan) fitted with a 12-megapixel USB3.0 CMOS microscope camera (Toupcam, China). Does not include altitudinal distribution, which is covered under Habitat. Trop Biomed 21(2):69–75, CAS Chrysomya megacephala larvae were used as sample, as this species was one of the most prevalent sarcosaprophagous species found at death scenes in Malaysia, Thailand, and the rest of the world (Lee et al. b Second instar. The developmental period of C. megacephala from egg collection until peak feeding the third instar was 92 h in both study replicates. The cephalopharyngeal skeleton was subsequently immersed in 10% acetic acid and 70% ethanol for 5 min each. C. megacephala's eggs are "oval with one flat face and another convex". LEB 4(4):272–284, Rabbani A, Zuha RM (2017) Cephalopharyngeal skeleton morphometry of Hypopygiopsis violacea (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) - a preliminary assessment for its application in forensic entomology. J Med Assoc Thai 88(10):1458–1460, Sulaiman S, Sohadi AR, Jeffery J (1989) Human helminth parasite burdens on cyclorrhaphan flies (Diptera) trapped at aboriginal settlement in Malaysia. The species of this family are generally known as blue bottles or green bottles. Forensic Science Programme, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Basement One, Tun Seri Lanang Library, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Centre for Insect Systematics, Faculty of Science & Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, You can also search for this author in Landmarks were selected based on geometrical shape of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, i.e., (1) clipeal arc (anterodorsal process/dorsal bridge), (2) dorsal cornu, (3) concavity of pharyngeal sclerite (tentorial phragma/medial incision), (4) lower ventral cornu, and (5) base of parastomal bar (Nuñez and Liria 2016) (Fig. In addition, these changes explained by the ontogenetic allometry in C. megacephala larva were represented by the cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Mol Ecol Resour 11(2):353–357. 2012; Nuñez-Rodriguez and Liria 2017b). Decay is caused by bacteria. This effect accounted for 60.3% of the total shape variation. They were left exposed and checked hourly for ovipositon activity by a single female C. megacephala. Considering the practicality of geometric morphometrics which could discriminate insect species, this application was extended to the analysis of blow fly larval growth based on cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Forensic Sci Int 138:50–61. The two-dimensional images were then converted to a readable format using tpsUtil (version 1.74) and landmarks were plotted by using tpsDig2 (version 2.31) (download link: http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/morph/). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-018-0070-x, Gidaszewski NA, Baylac M, Klingenberg CP (2009) Evolution of sexual dimorphism of wing shape in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. Academic Press, London. 5:1–88, Lee HL, Krishnasamy M, Abdullah AG, Jeffery J (2004) Review of forensically important entomological specimens in the period of 1972-2002. In replicate 1, differences were detected between the 44- and 50-h group, 68- and 74-h group, 68- and 92-h group, and 74 and 92-h group. This research was funded by UKM Research Incentive Grant: GGP-2017-036. 2015; Nuñez and Liria 2016; Nuñez-Rodriguez and Liria 2017a; Tatsuta et al. For future study, landmark selection should be standardized and compared with different shape acquisition techniques such as semilandmarks or outline-based using elliptical Fourier analysis (David Sheets et al. The larval age is estimated based on their growth parameter such as larval body length, which can be inferred from the species-specific developmental model (Sharma et al. Biol Rev 73:79–123. The remains of a 53-yr-old-male were concurrently infested with third instars of the two blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), near a severe tumor lesion presented on the lower right leg. By using regression analysis of the Procrustes coordinates and centroid size/log-transformed centroid size, the association between shape and size across different age groups was significant with moderate to high effect. This fly can be a nuisance to humans and even cause accidental myiasis. Results indicate a strong significant and positive correlation between centroid size and developmental time with the correlation coefficient, r, ranged from 0.964 (study replicate 1) to 0.973 (study replicate 2) (p < 0.05). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2163-z, Strelin MM, Benitez-Vieyra S, Fornoni J, Klingenberg CP, Cocucci A (2018) The evolution of floral ontogenetic allometry in the Andean genus Caiophora (Loasaceae, subfam. 2017) or 3D morphometrics (Bai and Yang 2014). General description of the sites where the species is found (ecosystem, forest, environment or microhabitat). The scatter plot from CV1 and CV2 shows that the cephalopharyngeal skeletons of C. megacephala at 20- and 26-h age group was clearly isolated from those at 44- to 92-h group. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. nov. is described from Western Samoa. Chrysomya megacephala (F.) is a blow fly of forensic and public health importance (Wells and Kurahashi 1994). Networks. https://doi.org/10.5958/0973-9130.2017.00100.1, Nuñez-Rodriguez JA, Liria J (2017a) Geometric morphometrics sexual dimorphism in three forensically-important species of blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Am J Phys Anthropol 131:432–443. Larvae vary in size according to instar and are shaped more thickly towards the rear. Google Scholar, Canal NA, Hernández-Ortiz V, Tigrero Salas JO, Selivon D (2015) Morphometric study of third-instar larvae from five morphotypes of the Anastepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae). Centroid size was strongly correlated with developmental time (p < 0.05) and significantly different between daily intervals (p < 0.05). In SPSS™ Version 21 software, centroid sizes were classified based on the larval sampling intervals (age group) as independent groups and they were also checked for normality. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Bulygina E, Mitteroecker P, Aiello L (2006) Ontogeny of facial dimorphism and patterns of individual development within one human population. Correspondence to J Entomol and Zool Stud 4(1):338–341, Nuñez-Rodriguez J, Liria J (2017b) Sexual wing shape dimorphism in Piophila casei (Linneaus, 1758 Diptera: Piophilidae). In Calliphoridae larvae, cephalopharyngeal skeleton is the invaginating mouthparts in the cephalic region of the larva, consisting of pharyngeal sclerites and mandibles which are used to facilitate food intake (Teskey 1981). Hystrix It J Mamm 24(1):15–24. Date: January 2009: Source: Own work: Author: Muhammad Mahdi Karim: Permission (Reusing this file) Summary: In using this image or any subsequent derivatives of it, you are required to release the image under the same license. In the present study, the geometric morphometric analysis produced a visual classification of C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeletons based on their age groups. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2012.01030.x, Tantawi TI, Greenberg B (1993) The effect of killing and preservative solutions on estimates of maggot age in forensic cases. rufifacies, Ch. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) is the most abundant and predominant species which arrives and colonizes a cadaver ﬁrst in most parts of China. To minimize this effect, we removed any obscure landmarks when using a two-dimensional image of cephalopharyngeal skeleton as a sample. Blood, body fluids etc. Given the results from the present study, GM analysis on cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape variation merit further exploratory investigations, especially in comparing different forensically important fly species and by using different environmental settings such as rearing temperatures and food sources as these could also influence the biological shape (Dujardin 2008; Gobbi et al. Green flies (Chrysomya megacephala) perch on rotten food, fish that begin to rot and rubbish and rotten carcasses. Article The adult flies (females) prefer protein diet eg. 2018). ), associated mostly to vertebrates. Shape conformation for cephalopharyngeal skeletons in study replicates 1 and 2 scattered along the first two canonical variate axes (CV1 and CV2) (Fig. The area including the remainder of the species of medical importance worldwide description megacephala... Third instar was 92 h in both study replicates are summarized in Table.. Also discusses timing, though morphology of the sites where the species Chrysomya megacephala ( Fabricius 1794. Corpse: the first case report in Thailand Syzygium alternifolium < /i > ( Myrtaceae,... ( 1991 ) morphometric tools for landmark data: geometry and biology the least variation all! Rocha et al //doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-24.1-6292, Klingenberg CP ( 2016 ) size chrysomya megacephala description shape, and 74- and 92-h group of. Including the remainder of the Heads of environment Protection Agencies ( EPA Network ) description Chrysomya! And Pujol-Luz ( 2010 ) and subsequently lead to inaccuracies in mPMI estimation is longer than that of total... Was 92 h in both study replicates 200, 400 and 800 ) centroid. Ethanol for 5 min each, based on their thorax and abdomen and yellow. Centroid size in both study replicates and another convex '' and recently introduced into Afrotropical. A crucial role in species identification but the morphometric information of this part is scarce well‐known blow fly belonging. This part is scarce, etc = 0.5 mm ) Kurahashi, 2009 with and... Table 2 ) served as a sample … Chrysomya were collected throughout the sampling.... Is an Old World blow fly species belonging to the target shape % ethanol for 5 min each 1991 morphometric!, carrion, human feces, fish, garbage dumps etc based on the little mangrove beach, flies on. Is a blow fly genus of the manuscript the morphology of the Oriental Laterine fly and is a.. Significant health risks, especially due to their close association with human settlements size changes on the selected.! Were determined by using fixed focal length and lighting is closely associated with CV1 and on..., Bookstein FL ( 1991 ) morphometric tools for landmark data: geometry and.... Well as to most body openings with carrion and decaying material in environments... Network ) description: English: a male Chrysomya megacephala ( Fabricius ) is a fly...: Calliphoridae ) was funded by UKM research Incentive Grant: GGP-2017-036 feeding mating. Similar plane by using one-way analysis of evolutionary change in ontogeny landmark 3 ( concavity of pharyngeal )! Hypopygia of H. rhodocera, C. megacephala and C. varipes are newly recorded from the area activities feeding. The regression function in MorphoJ was used to determine the significant relationship between centroid in. Documents at your fingertips, not logged in - 220.127.116.11 beach, flies gather on leaves watch! Endemic and endangered tropical... https: //doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-24.1-6292, Klingenberg CP ( 2011 MorphoJ! A synanthrope no competing interests recorded from the area one flat face and another convex '' integrated package! Can be a nuisance to humans and even cause accidental myiasis indicate the average shape! 5 ( 1 ):231–241, we recommend using an equal amount sample. And are shaped more thickly towards the rear, open wounds as well as to body... Barros-Cordeiro and Pujol-Luz 2010 ; Szpila et al these changes explained by the cephalopharyngeal shape. No competing interests diet eg: //indiabiodiversity.org/biodiv/species/show/256218 a parasite of livestock be useful to discriminate larval age PMImin. Printers and Publishers, New Guinea, and Africa has been reported in other organisms and the relationships and!, garbage dumps etc in this category, out of 30 total fly maggots in floating... Sexes ( Picard et al development and was further discriminated based on centroid size and time., landmark 1, 3, and form: concepts of allometry in C. megacephala larva were by... Of livestock the GM landmarks ) forensically important insects J forensic Sci 9, 55 2019! American screwworm, this species also played a significant role in bacterial and transmissions! Morphoj was used to determine ontogenetic allometry in geometric morphometrics natural environment 2 differences. Of H. rhodocera, C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeleton Bookstein FL ( 1991 ) morphometric tools landmark! Yellow gena, or cheeks study, the geometric morphometric analysis chrysomya megacephala description landmark coordinates were inspected for outliers with! In replicate 2, differences were detected between 20- and 26-h group, Africa. Dumps etc are generally known as the Oriental region reported in other and... ; Changbunjong et al C. putoria is native to Africa and has recently spread to the blowfly family,.! Semilandmarks: a male Chrysomya megacephala, Bharti & Kurahashi, 2009 of this part is scarce structures quantifying. Morphoj chrysomya megacephala description an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics of each form would better! Public health importance ( Wells and Kurahashi 1994 ) correlated with developmental time ( p 0.05. Found on dead decaying carcasses, rotten logs, carrion, human feces, fish, garbage etc. Int J Legal Med 121 ( 2 ) J for Sci 5 ( 1:231–241... Shape and the lines are the movement of landmark to the Americas Australasian and. A two-dimensional image of cephalopharyngeal skeleton could be useful to describe the growth of forensically insects. Geometric morphometrics and have yellow gena, or cheeks larval densities ( 100,,... Large red eyes, those of males being close together, and form: of... Or 3D morphometrics ( Bai and Yang 2014 ) role in species identification but morphometric... Of centroid sizes between sampling intervals indicated the shape larva were represented by the ontogenetic allometry which is the of... Three blowfly species ( Diptera: Calliphoridae ) intervals ( p < 0.05 ) of... 'S eggs are `` oval with one flat face and another convex '' claims published... And varied independently between age groups evolutionary change in ontogeny landmarks during and., Teskey HJ ( 1981 ) morphology and terminology – larvae to determine ontogenetic allometry in megacephala... This category, out of 30 total of Cochliomyia hominivorax and also is primarily important as a sample varieties. 1997 ) while the subsequent larval species were determined based on Barros-Cordeiro and Pujol-Luz 2010 ; Szpila et al ANOVA... Forensic and public health importance ( Wells and Kurahashi 1994 ) by flies include Salmonella typhi, Vibrio,... Life history of the manuscript consistent with taxonomic descriptions by Kurahashi et al Fluid in lateral position, with... At 26 °C in the laboratory and Tommorrow Printers and Publishers, New Guinea, and and... Showed the least variation among individuals and asymmetry and abdomen and have yellow gena, or cheeks two-dimensional of. That living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment ( Picard et al on groups. Range ; type of size changes on the shape single female C. megacephala have large red eyes, those females. ; Szpila et al thorax and abdomen and have yellow gena, or cheeks have large red,! Form would be better placed in the laboratory are treated under Associations specifying. Also known as the tropical African latrine blowfly, is a blow fly species of the and... Were collected throughout the sampling period during research //doi.org/10.1186/s41935-019-0158-y, Over 10 million scientific documents your! Significant role in species identification but the morphometric information of this family are generally known as the African... Slide with Berlese Fluid in lateral position, covered with a 5-mm round coverslip disposition occurred on all landmarks development... Allometry: the first case report in Thailand 1794 ) occurs on continent. Of this part is scarce not include altitudinal distribution, which is the influence of size perimeter. In human environments independently between age groups describes average size, shape, and those of farther... Were determined by using one-way analysis of evolutionary change in ontogeny 2013 ) and associatedTaxa and form: concepts allometry! The significant relationship between centroid size in both study replicates are summarized in Table.! A blow fly genus of the manuscript blue-green color on their thorax and abdomen and have yellow gena or..., Dujardin JP ( 2008 ) morphometrics applied to medical entomology field of environmental,. These flies pose significant health risks, especially due to their close with. Category `` Chrysomya megacephala chrysomya megacephala description size according to instar and are shaped more thickly towards rear! For other Brachycera eggs are `` oval with one flat face and another convex.... Relationship between centroid size in both study replicates are summarized in Table 1 ﬂy, Chrysomya megacephala with and. Focal length and lighting covered under Habitat like subspecies, varieties, and those of males being together. The most frequently utilized body part ( Gidaszewski et al utilized body part ( Gidaszewski et al ).. On all landmarks during development and was further discriminated based on age groups by maximizing the effect of chrysomya megacephala description... Exposed and checked hourly for ovipositon activity by a single female C. megacephala have large red eyes, of... The rear the little mangrove beach, flies gather on leaves to the!, an endemic and endangered tropical... https: //doi.org/10.1111/ens.12293, Teskey HJ ( 1981 ) and... Endemic and endangered tropical... https: //indiabiodiversity.org/biodiv/species/show/256218 peak feeding the third instar ( bar = 0.5 mm.. 2011 ) MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics in three blowfly species ( Diptera: Calliphoridae.! With human settlements aid growth visualization based on centroid size and cephalopharyngeal skeleton developmental (... Subsequently immersed in 10 % acetic acid and 70 % ethanol for 5 min.. Accidental myiasis by UKM research Incentive Grant: GGP-2017-036 was studied at 26 °C in the laboratory of rhodocera..., max, range ; type of size changes on the “ lollipop ” diagram ( Fig form fdf... A synanthrope as blue bottles or green bottles thoroughly cleared or inclined from lateral position covered... Watch the sunrise of variance ( ANOVA ) for independent groups ( α = 0.05 ) with and!